Menu for Merlenes Eatery Restaurant

Filipino cuisine – food glossary

This page provides a list of Filipino cuisine/food glossary, based on Doreen G. Fernandez’s Palayok: Philippine Food Time.

achuete, atswete     bixa orellana, annato seed; also called lipstick plant
adobo     a dish of meat, seafood or vegetables cooked in vinegar and spices
adobado     cooked in vinegar and spices
agahan     breakfast
agkud     (Manobo) a liquor made from rice, corn, cassava or sorghum
alak     the generic Tagalog term for liquor or wine
alibangbang     bauhinia malabarica, butterfly-shaped leaves from a tree used for souring
alimango     mud crab
alimasag     blue crab
alugbati     bassela alba, Ceylon spinach
ampalaya     momordica charantia, bittermelon or bitter gourd
anonas     annona reticulata, custard apple, bullock heart
apa     wafer, also cone for ice cream
apahap     lates calcarifer, silver sea bass
aratiles     muntingia calabura, a little cherry-like wild fruit
arroz caldo     rice gruel cooked with chicken, often flavored with kasubha
atis     annona squamosa, sugar apple
ayungin     datnia plumbea, silver perch

babaylan     high priest/priestess in the native religion
bacalao (a la Vizcania)     (Spanish) salted codfish cooked in the style of Biscayne
balbakwa     in Luzon, salted fish; in Mindanao, a meat stew
bag-o     (Waray) tuba newly taken from the coconut
bagoong     salted, fermented fish or shrimp paste/sauce
bahal, bahalina     fermented tuba weeks, months, or years old
bakuli     ophicephalus striatus, murray fingerling
balangay     balanghay, a sailboat with 12-16 rowers
balimbing     averrhoa carmbola, star fruit, carambola
balut sa puti     a fertilized duck’s egg 16-19 days old, balut sa puti is still wrapped in white membrane and thus literally “wrapped in white”, which is what the phrase means
banak     family magulidae, mullet

chanos chanos, milk fish

baon     a food package from home taken to work or school
barilis     (Davao Bisayan) neothunnus macropterus, yellowfin tuna
batsoy     a dish of pork internal organs in broth
batuan     garcinia morella, a small sour green fruit with a large seed
baya     high-grade rice wine (tapuy) from the Cordillera
bayabas     psidium guajava, guava
baye-baye     (Ilonggo) a snack made of pinipig (young rice, pounded) and young coconut
bayawak     monitor lizard
beche-de-mer     (French) sea slug, trepang, sea cucumber
betute     (Pampango) a dish of stuffed frog
bia, biya     family gobiidae, goby
bibingka     a rice cake often garnished with salted eggs and carabao (water buffalo) milk cheese
bignay     antidesma bunius, Chinese laurel
binubudan     (Ilokano) yeast for rice wine
binuro     (Ilonggo) fish salted in layers
bodbod     (Cebuano) glutinous rice cooked iwth coconut milk and wrapped in banana leaf
brazo de mercedes     a meringue roll with an egg filling
buan-buan     megalops cyprinoides, tarpon
bukayo     a sweet made from mature coconut
bulalo     kneecap; a dish of this and other beef bones and meats boiled with vegetables
bulalohan     the eateries that offer boiled bulalo
buñuelos de viento     (Spanish) wind puff, a pastry served with syrup
burong isda     fish fermented with rice
buwad     (Cebuano) dried salted fish

cadera     (Spanish) sirloin
caldero     (Spanish) cooking pot
caldereta     (Spanish) goat stew
callos con garbanzos     (Spanish) tripe cooked with chick peas
camachille     pithecellobium dulce, kamachille, Madras thorn fruit
camaron rebozado     (Spanish) batter-fried shrimp, a Chinese dish
camote     ipomoea batatas, sweet potato
canonigo     (Spanish) a dessert of meringue with an egg-butter sauce
carajay     a native frying pan with a rounded bottom, a wok
carinderia, karinderia     a low-priced eating place, often at roadsides or markets
champurrado     a dish of rice cooked with chocolate
chicharron     crackling made from pork, beef, or carabao skin

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manilkara zapote, a brown sweet fruit with black seeds
chorizo     (Spanish) sausage
churros     (Spanish) fluted breakfast crullers usually taken with chocolate
cocido     (Spanish) a stew of mixed meats, sausages, and vegetables

dahon bawang     the leaves of the garlic plant, allium sativum
daing     fish split open, salted, and dried
dalag     ophicephalus striatus, murrel
dayap     citrus aurantifolia, lime
de recado     (Spanish) spiced; in the Philippines, it refers to spicy sausages
dikin     the woven rattan ring on which the round-bottomed palayok is set to stand
dilao, dilaw     curcuma domestica, turmeric
dinuguan at puto     a dish of blood stew with steamed rice cakes
duhat     syzygium kumini, Java plum
dulang     a low table, formerly for dining
durian     durio zybethinus, a fruit with a strong smell

embutido     (Spanish) a ground pork roll
ensaimada     (Spanish) a brioche-like roll that is buttered, sugared, and cheese-sprinkled
escabeche     (Spanish) fish cooked with vinegar, garlic, onions, and ginger

gabi     colocasia esculenta, taro root
galletas     (Spanish) very thin biscuits
gata’     coconut milk
ginataan     cooked in coconut milk; the dishes so cooked
guisa, mag-guisa     to sauté
guisar     (Spanish) to sautè

annona muricata, soursop

halabos     to steam shrimps or prawns in their own juice

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a mixture of sweetened beans and fruits topped with crushed ice or ice cream; a refresher served in a tall glass
hamonado     ham-cured; usually referring to sausages
hapunan     supper, dinner
hibe     small shrimps, peeled and dried
hipon at kasuy     shrimps cooked with cashew nuts
hojaldres     (Spanish) a thin pastry, sometimes of puff paste
humba     a dish of stewed pork

inday-inday     (Ilonggo) a snack made of glutinous rice and coconut
inihaw     roasted, charcoal-broiled or grilled
inihaw na panga     roasted or charcoal-broiled jaw of yellowfin tuna
inuman     a drinking session
inumin     a drink (could be plain water, soda, beer, juice, wine) taken together with a meal
inun-unan     (Cebuano) fish cooked in vinegar; in Tagalog, paksiw
itlog     egg

jamon     (Spanish) ham
jamon en dulce     (Spnaish) ham cooked in and/or coated or glazed with sugar
jamonado     (Spanish) ham-cured

kadyos     cadjanus cadjan, pigeon pea
kaimito, caimito     chrusophillum caimito, star apple
kakang gata     coconut cream
kakanin     snacks, light cakes, usually made of rice

citrus madurensis, a small lime indigenous to the Philippines; also called Chinese orange, Panama orange
kalan     a clay stove for wood or charcoal fuel
kalkag     (Ilonggo) tiny shrimps, lightly salted and dried
kamachille     see camachille
kamaru     (Pampango) mole cricket
kamayan     eating with hands instead of Western utensils (see comic strip below)

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mula sa Philippine Daily Inquirer Internet Edition, 25 September 2001
kamias     averrhoa bijimbi, a small acidic fruit
kanduli     family ariidae, sea catfish
kangkong     ipomoea aquatica, swamp cabbage, also called potato vine
kaong     the fruit of a sugar palm
kari     pre-cooked food
kari-kari     a stew of ox tail/feet/tripe with vegetables and a sauce thickened with ground roasted peanuts and rice
karihan     an eatery selling pre-cooked food
karinderia     an eatery selling pre-cooked food
kasim     lean pork, picnic
kasubha     the dried stigmas of a plant, used for coloring and flavoring food; a kind of saffron
kasuy     anacardium occidentale, cashew
katuray     sesbania grandiflora, a white flower used in salads
kawa     a vat used for cooking large amounts of food
kesong puti     literally “white cheese”, a cottage cheese made of carabao’s (water buffalo) milk
kinchay     apium graveolens, Chinese celery
kinilaw     a dish of fish, seafood, meat or vegetables dressed with vinegar or lime juice, but not cooked over fire
kiping     a rice wafer used for decoration in Lucban and other towns in Quezon
kolis     pisonia alba, lettuce tree, also called maluko in Tagalog
kulitis     amarnthus viridis, slender amaranth
kundol     benicasa hispida, wax gourd
kutsay     allium odorum, Chinese chives
kutsinta     a little cake made of steamed mixture of sugar, rice, lye

lagundi     vitex negundo, a medicinal plant
laksoy     liquor distilled form the sap of a nipa palm
lakub     the bamboo tube attacked to the coconut bud to catch the sap for tuba
lambanog     liquor distilled from the sap of coconut palm
langkawas     galingale, galenggal
lanzones     lansium domesticum, a small fruit that grows in bunches, with translucent flesh in segments enclosing seeds
lapu-lapu     family serranidae, grouper
laswa     (Ilonggo) a dish of mixed leafy, pod and fruit vegetables steamed with bagoong and dried shrimps
lawot-lawot     (Waray) a dish of mixed leafy, pod, and fruit vegetables
leche flan     (Spanish) milk custard; creme caramel
lechon, letson     (Spanish) pig; in the Philippines, split-roasted pig
lechon manok     chicken roasted on a split
lengua estofada     (Spanish) stewed ox tongue
liempo     pork belly
lina     (Ilonggo) newly-gathered tuba
lomi     wide noodles in broth
lomo     (Spanish) beef loin
longaniza     (Spanish) long sausage
lugaw     rice porridge or gruel
lumpia     Chinese-style eggroll; meat and/or vegetables wrapped in thin crepe

macapuno     sport coconut
mameng, maming     family labridae, wrasse
mami     a dish of noodles, chicken or beef, and broth
manamis-namis     (adjective) mildly sweet, not the sweetness of sugar but of freshness
marang     artocarpus odoratissima, a large aromatic fruit containing segements each enclosing a seed
mazapan     (Spanish) marzipan
mechado     (Spanish) beef cooked with pork lardoons
menudo     a stew dish of diced pork, chicken, sausage, potatoes, carrots, peas, and tomato sauce usually eaten with rice on the side
merienda     a mid-afternoon snack
merienda-cena     a late afternoon meal; an early supper or dinner
minoron     a snack of glutinous rice cooked with a streak of chocolate
miso     soybean cake or mash
mole     (Spanish) a Mexican dish of chicken cooked with peanuts
morisqueta tostada     (Spanish) rice fried with vegetables and other condiments
munggo     phaseolus aureus, green mung bean
musang     civet cat
mustasa     brassica juncea v. integrifola, mustard greens

nata de coco     a sweet made by growing a culture on coconut water
nilaga     boiled; a dish of boiled beef, or pork, or chicken, and vegetables

paella     (Spanish) a dish of rice cooked with meats and/or seafood and vegetables
pahiyas     the feast of San Isidro Labrador on May 15, celebrated in Lucban, Quezon by decorating the houses with food.  In Madrid, Spain, the same feast is celebrated on the same day, and San Isidro Labrador is also the patron saint of Madrid.
pako     arthyrium esculentum, edible fern
paksiw     a dish cooked in vinegar and garlic
paksiw na pata     pork trotters cooked in vinegar
palay     unhusked rice
palayok     a round-bottomed clay pot
palitaw     small cakes made from glutinous rice
pan de sal, de limon, de coco, de leche, americano     (Spanish) bread respectively with salt, lemon, coconut, and milk; sliced loaf bread
pandan     pandanus odoratissimus, screw pine
panga     literally jaw; the jaw of yellowfin tuna
panghimagas     dessert; a sweet taken after meals
pancit, pansit     a dish of noodles and shrimps, fish, meat, or vegetables, with many variations, e.g., luglog (shaken in hot water, flavored with sauce), molo (with pork-filled wontons and broth), Malabon (with shrimps, oysters, and squid), habhab (eaten off a banana leaf), Canton (with egg noodles), bihon (with rice noodles), buko (with coconut strips instead of noodles)
pansit-pansitan     peperomia pellucida, a scculent herb, the leaves of which have medicinal properties
pantulak, panulak     literally “for pushing”; refers to drinks, which “push” the pulutan down
pasalubong     a gift brought home from a trip
pastel de pollo     (Spanish) a chicken pie; a dish of chicken with crust
pastillas     (Spanish) pastilles; usually pastillas de leche, sweets made of milk
pata tim     a Chinese dish of stewed pork leg
patis     fish sauce
patola     luffa cylindrica, sponge gourd
patupat     (Ilokano) a rice cake wrapped in banana leaf
pavo embuchado     (Spanish) stuffed turkey
pesang manok     a dish of fish or chicken cooked with vegetables, often served with a miso sauce
pescado en salsa agrio-dulce     (Spanish) fish in a sweet and sour sauce
petsay     brassica chinesis, pakchoy, bokchoy
pili     canarium ovatum, a hard nut indigenous to the Philippines, with an oil-rich kernel
pinya, piña     pineapple
pimientos morrones     (Spanish) red bell peppers
pinais     a dish native to Quezon province, of shrimps and coconut wrapped in banana leaf and steamed in coconut water
pinakbet     a dish of Ilokano origin, of ampalaya, okra, eggplants, and tomatoes steamed with fish bagoong
pinamalhan     (Ilonggo) fish cooked in vinegar, which is allowed to evaporate
pinapaitan     (Ilokano) a dish of goat meat with goat bile
pinaupong manok     chicken steamed in a bed of salt
pochero     (Spanish) a stew of mixed meats, sausages and vegetables with tomatoes
polvoron     a sweet of powdery texture made of powdered milk and sugar
postre     (Spanish) dessert
puchero     a native stew of meat, sausage and vegetables with an eggplant relish
pulutan     any cooked dish (meat, chicken, pork, seafood) taken with beer, wine, liquor during a drinking session; could also be nuts; a pulutuan is similar to Spanish tapas-tapas
punta y pecho     (Spanish) beef brisket
pusu     rice cooked in a fist-sized woven-leaf basket; “travelling” or “hanging” rice
puto     steamed rice cake
puto bumbong     a cylindrical cake of violet rice (pirurutung) steamed upright in a bamboo tube

queso de bola     Edam ball cheese

relleno     (Spanish) stuffed food, dish
rellenong alimasag     crab sauteed and stuffed into the crab shell
rellenong manok     stuffed chicken
rellenong bangus     milkfish stuffed with its own flesh that has been sauteed

sa malamig     cold drinks sold at streetside
sahog     the shrimps, meat, etc. used to flavor vegetables or noodle dish
salabat     ginger tea/brew
saluyot     corchorus olitorius, Jew’s mallow
sangke     star anise
santol     sandoricum koetjape, a fruit with a thick rind and pulp enclosing whitish, furry seeds, sour-sweet in taste
sapin-sapin     a rice sweet of blanc-mange consistency, made of several layers, usually of different colors
sarten     (Spanish) frying pan
sawa     snake; python or boa constrictor
sayote     sechium edule, chayote, mirliton pear
shawarma     a Middle Eastern snack of sliced meat (beef, lamb, chicken) and condiments served with pita bread
sili     capsicum annuum, chili
sinalok     (Cebuano) a steamed corned cake eaten with kinilaw
sinampalukang manok     chicken cooked with tamarind leaves and sprouts
sinangag     garlic-fried rice
sineguelas, sinegwelas     spondias purpurea, Spanish plum
sinigang     a stew of meat/fish/seafood and vegetables in a sour broth
singkamas     pachyrrhizus erosus, yambean
solasi, sulasi     ocimum sanctum, holy basil
solomillo     (Spanish) tenderloin
sotanghon guisado     mungbean noodles sauteed with meats and vegetables
suam     soups and dishes made of rice water
suha     citrus grandis, pomelo
suki     a vendor from whom one buys regularly; also a regular customer
sugpo     prawn
suman     a rice cake from glutinous rice, often wrapped in palm or banana leaves

tabon-tabon     hydrophytune orbiculatum, a fruit, the juice of which is used in kinilaw, and for finishing baskets
tagay, tagayan, tagatagayan, tagay-tagay     the measure, the practice, and the one in charge of drinking at a drinking session
taho     a drink made of soybean curd and syrup
tahuri     soy bean cake
talbos     the young sprouts or tendrils of squash, camote or sayote plants
tamales     a rice cake flavored with peanuts, pork, eggs, etc. and wrapped in banana leaves
tanghalian     the noon meal; lunch
tanglad     cymbopogon citratus, lemon grass
tapa     slices or strips of dried meat; tapang usa is dried venison
tapey     (Manobo) the yeast for making rice wine
tapoi     (Igorot) the yeast for making rice wine
tapuy     (Igorot) rice wine
tausi, tawsi     salted soybeans
tilapia     tilapia zili, a fast-growing fish
tinapa     smoked fish
tinolang manok     a dish of chicked cooked with vegetable (green papaya, chili leaves) and broth
tinowa     (Cebuano) a dish of fish and vegetables in a lightly soured broth
tocino     (Spanish) salt pork; in Tagalog or Pampango it is sweet cured pork
toge, togue     mung bean sprouts
tokwa     firm soy bean curd, also fried soy bean curd
torta de cangrejo     (Spanish) crabmeat cooked with egg
torta del rey     (Spanish) a cake of many thin layers
tortilla de patatas     (Spanish) potato omelet
tuba     palm toddy
tupig     (Ilocano) a kind of rice cake wrapped in banana leaves
turo-turo     an eatery in which the pre-cooked foods are laid out, and chosen by pointing (turo)
turon     a fried spring roll, either meat, vegetable, or banana; turong saging (deep fried banana fritter) is usually cooked in oil with brown sugar and some jackfruit strips, and a typical snack or dessert in the Philippines
turron     (Spanish) nougat
tuyo     whole fish, dried and salted

ubod     the core of the coconut palm; heart of palm
ukoy     a vegetable patty, of mixed vegetables, or of flour and vegetables; a variation is a combination of shrimps, tofu, and vegetable patty
ulam     viand, the main dish that comes with rice
ulang     ustacidae, crayfish; also macrobrachium rosenbergii, giant freshwater prawn
upo     lagenaria leucantha, bottle gourd

wansoy     corindrium sativum, coriander leaf

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